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Day 2: Types Of Operating Systems

Batch Operating System, Multiprogramming Operating System, Multi-Tasking Operating System, Multithreading Operating System, Real-Time Operating System, Distributed Operating System Are The Types Of Operating Systems.

Batch Operating System

Early Computers Were Large Machines The Run From A Console.

Console Means It Is A Panel Or Unit Accommodating A Set Of Controls For Electronic And Mechanical Equipment.

The Input Devices Used Were Tape Drives And Card Readers.

The Common Output Devices Were Tape Drives, Card Punches And Line Printers.

The Users Of Batch Systems Did Not Interact Directly With The Computer Systems. Rather, The User Prepared A Job Which Consists Of Programs, Data And Control Information And Then Submitted It To Be Computer Operator.

The Job Prepared Would Be In The Form Of Punch Cards. After Sometime Perhaps Minutes, Hours Or Days, The Out Put Prepared.

The Working Of Operating System In These Early Computers Was Very Simple, They Transfer Control Automatically From One Job To The Next And The Operating System Was Always Present In The Memory.

The Main Drawback Of Batch System Is The Lack Of Interaction Between The User And The Job While It Was Executing. In This Type Of System, The CPU Often Idle.

Multi-Programming Operating System

Multi-Programming Is A Technique Of Running Several Programs At A Time Using Time Sharing. It Allows A Computer To Do Several Things At The Same Time.

Multi-Programming Creates Logical Parallelism.

The Concept Of Multi-Programming Is That The Operating System Keep Several Jobs In The Memory Simontanuosly. The Operating System Selects A Job From The Job Pool And Starts Executing A Job, When That Job Needs To Waits For Any Input/Output Operations, The CPU Is Switched To Another Job.

So, The Main Idea Here Is That The CPU Is Never Idle.

Multi-Tasking Operating System

Multi-Tasking Is The Logical Extension Of Multi-Programming.

The Concept Of Multitasking Is Quite Similar To Multi-Programming But Difference Is That The Switching Between Jobs Occurs So Frequently That Users Can Interact With Each Program While It Is Running.

This Concept Is Also Known As Time-Sharing System. A Time-Shared Operating System Uses CPU Scheduling And Multiprogramming To Provide Each User With A Small Portion Of Time Shared System.

Multi-Threading Operating System

An Application Typically Is Implemented As A Separate Process With Several Threads Of Control.

In Some Situations, A Single Application May Be Required To Perform Several Similar Tasks, For Example, A Web Server Accepts Client Request For Web Pages, Images Sound And So Forth. A Busy Web Server May Have Several Clients Concurrently Accessing It. If The Web Server Ran As A Traditional Single-Threaded Process, It Would Be Able To Service Only One Client At A Time. The Amount Of Time That A Client Might Have To Wait For Its Request To Be Serviced Could Be Enormous. So, It Is Efficient To Have One Process That Contains Multiple Threads To Serve The Same Purpose.

This Approach Would Multithreaded The Web Server Process, The Server Would Create A Separate Thread That Would Listen For Client Requests When A Request Was Made Rather Than Creating Another Process, It Would Create Another Thread To Service The Request.

Real-Time Operating System

Another Separate Form Of Operating System Is Real-Time System. A Real-Time Operating System Is Used In Environments Where A Large Number Of Events Mostly External To The Computer System Must Be Accepted And Processed In Short Time Or Within Certain Deadlines.

Real, Time Systems Are Used When There Are Rigid Time Requirements, On The Flow Of Data Or The Operation Of Processor And Therefore, Used As A Control Device In A Dedicated Application.

Distributed Operating System

In Distributed Systems, The Computation Is Distributed Among Several Processors. Each Processor In Distributed System Has Its Own Local Memory And Do Not Share Memory Or A Clock.

A Distributed Operating System Governs The Operation Of A Distributed Operating System And Provides A Virtual Machine Abstraction To Its Users.



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