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Day 2: Operating System Components

Operating System Components Are Process Management, Memory Management, Storage Management, Networking, Protection And Security, User Interface.


  1. Single-Processor Computers
  2. Multi-Processor Computers

2.Multi-Processor Computers

  • Increased Throughput
  • Economy Of Scale (cost less share resources)
  • Increased Reliability

3.Asymmetric vs symmetric multiprocessing

4.Multiprocessor vs clustered systems

5.Multiprocessing vs multiprogramming

  • Degree Of Multiprogramming

OS system structure


  • Keep CPU And I/O Devices busy at all times

2.Timesharing/ multitasking 

  • Each user has at least one program executing in memory
  • If several jobs ready to run at the same time
  • -> CPU Scheduling
  • If Processes don’t fit in memory, swapping moves them in and out to run

Components Of An OS

1. Process Management

2. Memory Management

3. Storage Management 

  • Uniform, Logical View Of Information Storage
  • File Management
  • I/O Subsystem (Hide Peculiarities Of Hardware Devices From The User)

4. Networking 

5. Protection And Security 

  • Protection- Any Mechanism For Controlling Access Of Processes Or Users To Resources Defined By The OS
  • Security – Defence Of The System Against Internal And External Attacks

6.User Interface 


System Calls

1. System Call

  • Method Used By A Process To Request An Action By The OS

2.Dual Mode Operation 

  • 2 Modes: User And Supervisor/Privileged/Monitor/Kernel
  • Privileged Instructions Must Go Through The OS

Computing Environments




  • Local Area Network(LAN)-room, building, campus
  • Wide Area Network(WAN)-cities, countries
  • Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)-buildings in a city
  • PersonalArea Network (PAN)-(i.e.Bluetooth)

4.Network Operating System

  • Systems Across Network
  • Illusion Of Single Network


1. Early Systems Allow Only One Process To Run, Others Suspended 

2. Due To Screen Real Estate, UI Limits iOS Provides For A

  • Single Foreground Process- Controlled Via User Interface
  • Multiple Background Processes- In Memory, Running, But Not On The Display, And With Limits
  • Limits Include Single, Short Task, Receiving Notification Of Events, Specific Long-Running Tasks Like Audio Playback

3. Android Runs Foreground, With Fewer Limits 

  • Background Process Uses A Service To Perform Tasks
  • Service Can Keep Running Even If Background Process Is Suspended
  • Service Has No User Interface, Small Memory Use


Multiprocess Architecture – Chrome Browser

1. Many Web Browsers Ran As Single Process (Some Still Do)

  • If One Web Site Causes Trouble, Entire Browser Can Hang Or Crash

2. Google Chrome Browser Is A Multiprocess With 3 Categories

  • Browser Process Manages User Interface, Disk, And Network I/O
  • Renderer Process Renders Web Pages, Deals With HTML, Javascript, New One For Each Website Opened, Runs In Sandbox Restricting Disk And Network I/O, Minimizing Effect Of Security Exploits
  • Plug-in Process For Each Type Of Plug-in


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